The Rebirth of Art: Renaissance and Baroque Rebirth of Art: Renaissance The Middle Ages are so called because they fall between twin peaks of artistic glory: The Classical period and the Renaissance.
Counter Reformation— the response of Roman church to the Protestant Reformation wherein beliefs were clarified, reaffirmed, and justified. A few main themes that can guide your discussion of all the major Italian Renaissance works include: The revival of classical styles and ideas specifically humanismreturn to the naturalistic style 3D objects and spaceand the rising status of the individual both artist and patron.
An important point of contrast here is the fact that earlier large-scale sculpture decorated architecture.
As such, there was less danger of it generating idol worship and violating the third commandment forbidding graven images. One rarely finds life-sized, naturalistic sculpture in early Christian art or early medieval art.
It was not until the Renaissance, when Europe was firmly Christian and comfortably distanced from pagan idols that naturalistic sculpture in the round made a large-scale comeback. I find this a good time to make or reiterate the point that societies construct different ideas about gender, social roles, ideals of beauty, etc.
Donatello was intentionally pushing social boundaries here with his provocative pose and his use of nudity—that is, his combination of a lack of clothing and the presence of boots and a hat—in order to challenge his viewers.
The fact that he revived the lost-wax bronze technique was also very innovative for the time and enhances the sensuality of his surface texture. Donatello was able to be so experimental, because he had the support and protection of the Medici family, a wealthy and influential banking family that operated as the de facto rulers of Florence and who saw themselves as great patrons of the arts.
For more specific descriptions of these see the above mentioned resource from National Geographic. Other references to classical architecture include the use of columns, minimal decoration, symmetry, and rationalized proportions. This work is also illustrative of the rising status of the artist, because Brunelleschi had to win the commission through a competition.
His ideas were his own—he kept them secret until he was awarded the victory—and his victory brought with it fame and celebrity. If you have extra time: For the cathedral dome, Brunelleschi had to make certain concessions.
At San Lorenzo and Santo Spirito, Brunelleschi had more of an opportunity to embrace rounded arches and execute a comprehensive plan based on classical ideals such as symmetry and harmonious proportions. The clarity of his architectural style is evident through his approach to materials.
When an element is structural, Brunelleschi tended to signal this by using the local grey stone, pietra serena. Vasari claimed that Brunelleschi and Masaccio were friends, and that the former taught the latter the technique of perspective. Such an activity demonstrates how one can make a 3-D space by simply making the orthogonals lines perpendicular to the picture plane converge at the vanishing point.
This will help them realize that Trinity is effectively a real altarpiece depicting a fictive chapel that allowed one to occupy sacred real estate inside the church and prepare for their afterlife through artistic patronage.
As was the case with Medici sponsorship of Donatello, patronage was also an important issue here. The donor portraits provide an opportunity to talk about the rise of portraiture, its commemorative aspect, and the fact that the donors hoped later visitors would pray on their behalf to help them in the afterlife.
Through the inscription, which can be seen as something akin to a speech bubble, the skeleton proclaims that what you now are aliveI once was and what I am now deadyou will one day become. Sometimes students struggle with this because the foreshortened edges of the sarcophagus and the capitals are very small and they converge upwards towards the same vanishing point, that is, they converge in an opposite manner than those in the upper portion of the fresco.
Subsequently, one can observe a general tendency to appeal to the viewer through naturalistic settings and figures, vernacular details, and displays of psychological tension or drama.
Linear perspective provided artists with more space and, consequently, the opportunity to convey more detailed stories. Another artistic convention that fostered greater narrative capabilities was continuous narrative seen here.
Masaccio showed three events from one story in a single frame, rather than dividing the scenes as Giotto did.
The artist was not necessarily educating the viewer about this story. The odds were that the viewer already knew it, and so Masaccio could take artistic license. In addition to linear perspective, this fresco uses atmospheric perspective to show depth in a natural setting by making objects that are further away smaller, more bluish, and less sharply defined.
The artist also used the lighting to draw the viewer into the story and make the scene more believable and relatable.
The illusionistic lighting within the painting enters from the right and casts shadows that fall towards left. As such, the lighting within the painting would have matched the actual lighting in the chapel, as there was originally a widow on the wall to the right of the painting.
This would have made the viewers feel as if the painted reality was an extension of their own, an aspect of the work which is reinforced when one considers how people actually used this room.Aside from his painting of the Primavera, Sandro Botticelli’s other greatest work, done for the Medici family, is the Birth of Venus.
Unfortunately, we do not know for sure which Medici it was painted for, or which location it was originally hung in. After it was completed, Michelangelo’s David became a civic symbol for Florence, even though it was ultimately a religious sculpture.
The early s was a time of turbulence between the city and its former ruling family, the Medici. Art with Science: The Italian Renaissance and Art - “No painter can paint well without a thorough knowledge of geometry” (qtd. in Butterfield 27). The Italian Renaissance is famous for its art which includes unique style of painting and sculpting, however, the Renaissance made significant remark on the use of scientific techniques which also can be considered as the influence of classical ideas.
Italian Renaissance nobleman and philosopher who wrote "Oration on the Dignity of Man," which remaps the human landscape to center all attention on human capacity and the human perspective. Johannes Gutenberg.
Cultural Analysis: Italian Renaissance By the end of the 14 th century, a handful of Italian thinkers stated that they were going to be the start of the new age. They believed that the savage “Middle Ages” were over and that a rebirth was bound to happen that would influence the culture, literature, and art of Italy.
It was a "rebirth" (Renaissance literally translates to rebirth from Latin) of ideas and art of the Ancient Greeks and Romans. Society saw a rise in ingenuity, creativity, ambition, and individualism in commerce, politics, and in intellectual circles.