Skellig Michael, also known as Great Skellig, is a steep rocky island in the Atlantic Ocean about Clovis I — Clovis or Chlodowech was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the leadership from a group of royal chieftains, to rule by kings, ensuring that the kingship was held by his heirs. Charles Martel, also known as Charles the Hammer, was a Frankish military and political leader, who served as Mayor of the Palace under the Merovingian kings and ruled de facto during an interregnum at the end of his life, using the title Duke and Prince of the Franks.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the s and s to avant-garde atonal compositions for solo piano from the s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type.
However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that few or no other genres of music contain,  such as the use of music notation [ clarification needed ] and the performance of complex forms of solo instrumental works e.
Furthermore, while the symphony did not exist prior to the late 18th century, the symphony ensemble —and the works written for it —have become a defining feature of classical music. This score typically determines details of rhythm, pitch, and, where two or more musicians whether singers or instrumentalists are involved, how the various parts are coordinated.
The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: Musical notation enables s-era performers to sing a choral work from the s Renaissance era or a s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music the melodies, lyrics, forms, and rhythms being reproduced.
As well, in the Baroque era, many works that were designed for basso continuo accompaniment do not specify which instruments should play the accompaniment or exactly how the chordal instrument harpsichord, lute, etc.
The performer and the conductor have a range of options for musical expression and interpretation of a scored piece, including the phrasing of melodies, the time taken during fermatas held notes or pauses, and the use or choice not to use of effects such as vibrato or glissando these effects are possible on various stringed, brass and woodwind instruments and with the human voice.
Although Classical music in the s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisationfrom the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era.
In the Baroque era, organ performers would improvise preludeskeyboard performers playing harpsichord would improvise chords from the figured bass symbols beneath the bass notes of the basso continuo part and both vocal and instrumental performers would improvise musical ornaments.
During the Romantic era, Beethoven would improvise at the piano. Instrumentation and vocal practices[ edit ] See also: Woodwind sectionBrass sectionString sectionPercussion sectionand Keyboard section The instruments currently used in most classical music were largely invented before the midth century often much earlier and systematised in the 18th and 19th centuries.
They consist of the instruments found in an orchestra or in a concert bandtogether with several other solo instruments such as the pianoharpsichordand organ.
The symphony orchestra is the most widely known medium for classical music  [ not in citation given ] and includes members of the stringwoodwindbrassand percussion families of instruments. The concert band consists of members of the woodwind, brass, and percussion families. It generally has a larger variety and number of woodwind and brass instruments than the orchestra but does not have a string section.
However, many concert bands use a double bass. The vocal practices changed over the classical period, from the single line monophonic Gregorian chant done by monks in the Medieval period to the complex, polyphonic choral works of the Renaissance and subsequent periods, which used multiple independent vocal melodies at the same time.
Medieval music[ edit ] Many of the instruments used to perform medieval music still exist, but in different forms. Medieval instruments included the flutethe recorder and plucked string instruments like the lute.
As well, early versions of the organ and fiddle or vielle existed. Medieval instruments in Europe had most commonly been used singly, often self accompanied with a drone note, or occasionally in parts. From at least as early as the 13th century through the 15th century there was a division of instruments into haut loud, shrill, outdoor instruments and bas quieter, more intimate instruments.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. April Learn how and when to remove this template message Many instruments originated during the Renaissance; others were variations of, or improvements upon, instruments that had existed previously.
Some have survived to the present day; others have disappeared, only to be re-created in order to perform music on period instruments. As in the modern day, instruments may be classified as brass, strings, percussion, and woodwind.
Brass instruments in the Renaissance were traditionally played by professionals who were members of Guilds and they included the slide trumpetthe wooden cornetthe valveless trumpet and the sackbut. Stringed instruments included the violthe rebecthe harp-like lyrethe hurdy-gurdythe lutethe guitarthe citternthe bandoraand the orpharion.
Keyboard instruments with strings included the harpsichord and the virginals. Woodwind instruments included the double reed shawmthe reed pipethe bagpipethe transverse flutethe recorderthe dulcianand the crumhorn.AKRON COMMUNITY FOUNDATION SCHOLARSHIP. Application Deadline: February 15 Final Determinations: 3rd week April.
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about music history—that is, about music historiography and the assumptions that underlie the writing of music history. In his discussion of the history of seventeenth-century opera he writes explicitly that “it will teach us about the politics of art and (for our present purposes even more press-ing) about the politics of art history” ().
Dana Butler 12/08/14 Music of the 18th Century Derived from the Portuguese barroco, or “oddly shaped pearl,” the term “baroque” has been widely used since the nineteenth century to describe the period in Western European art music from about to The following is an outline of the history of Western classical music.
Although "Western" and "classical" are inexact terms, they do name a reasonably coherent musical tradition that stretches from the Dark Ages to the present day.
The University Libraries are committed to identifying, collecting, organizing, preserving, and providing access to information supporting the instructional programs of the university. The Libraries pledge to make available essential resources in each curricular field and to participate in the education of its users.
As a secondary mission, the Libraries will support the research and. Throughout history all cultures have been influenced by music. Before the Baroque era in music there were many forms of western music. Most of this music was monophonic, sung in chant used mostly for religious purposes.3/5(8).