Rachel Carson was an American biologist and writer whose book Silent Spring awakened the public to the dangers of pollution and its impact on the environment.
The gypsy moth program involved aerial spraying of DDT and other pesticides mixed with fuel oilincluding the spraying of private land. Landowners on Long Island filed a lawsuit to have the spraying stopped, and many in affected regions followed the case closely.
She also attempted to enlist others to join the cause: Whiteand a number of journalists and scientists. ByCarson had arranged a book deal, with plans to co-write with Newsweek science journalist Edwin Diamond.
However, when The New Yorker commissioned a long and well-paid article on the topic from Carson, she began considering writing more than simply the introduction and conclusion as planned; soon it was a solo project.
Diamond would later write one of the harshest critiques of Silent Spring. From reading the scientific literature and interviewing scientists, Carson found two scientific camps when it came to pesticides: Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, other contacts, and their suite of legal actions against the U.
Marjorie Spock and Mary T. They compiled their evidence and shared it with Carson, who used it, their extensive contacts, and the trial transcripts, as a primary input for Silent Spring. Carson attended the ensuing FDA hearings on revising pesticide regulations; she came away discouraged by the aggressive tactics of the chemical industry representatives, which included expert testimony that was firmly contradicted by the bulk of the scientific literature she had been studying.
She also wondered about Rachel carson research essay possible "financial inducements behind certain pesticide programs. Of particular significance was the work of National Cancer Institute researcher and environmental cancer section founding director Wilhelm Hueperwho classified many pesticides as carcinogens.
Carson and her research assistant Jeanne Davis, with the help of NIH librarian Dorothy Algire, found evidence to support the pesticide-cancer connection; to Carson the evidence for the toxicity of a wide array of synthetic pesticides was clear-cut, though such conclusions were very controversial beyond the small community of scientists studying pesticide carcinogenesis.
In addition to the thorough literature search, she had investigated hundreds of individual incidents of pesticide exposure and the human sickness and ecological damage that resulted. However, in January, a duodenal ulcer followed by several infections kept her bedridden for weeks, greatly delaying the completion of Silent Spring.
As she was nearing full recovery in March just as she was completing drafts of the two cancer chapters of her bookshe discovered cysts in her left breast, one of which necessitated a mastectomy.
Though her doctor described the procedure as precautionary and recommended no further treatment, by December Carson discovered that the tumor was malignant and the cancer had metastasized.
However, further health troubles slowed the final revisions in and early By AugustCarson finally agreed to the suggestion of her literary agent Marie Rodell: Silent Spring would be a metaphorical title for the entire book, suggesting a bleak future for the whole natural world, rather than a literal chapter title about the absence of birdsong.
The final writing was the first chapter, A Fable for Tomorrow, which Carson intended as a gentle introduction to what might otherwise be a forbiddingly serious topic. By mid, Brooks and Carson had largely finished the editing, and were laying the groundwork for promoting the book by sending the manuscript out to select individuals for final suggestions.
DDT is a prime example, but other synthetic pesticides come under scrutiny as well, many of which are subject to bioaccumulation. Carson also accuses the chemical industry of intentionally spreading disinformation and public officials of accepting industry claims uncritically.
In laboratory tests on animal subjects, DDT has produced suspicious liver tumors. Scientists of the Food and Drug Administration who reported the discovery of these tumors were uncertain how to classify them, but felt there was some "justification for considering them low grade hepatic cell carcinomas.
The book closes with a call for a biotic approach to pest control as an alternative to chemical pesticides. Part of the argument she made in Silent Spring was that even if DDT and other insecticides had no environmental side effects, their indiscriminate overuse was counter-productive because it would create insect resistance to the pesticide smaking the pesticides useless in eliminating the target insect populations: No responsible person contends that insect-borne disease should be ignored.
The question that has now urgently presented itself is whether it is either wise or responsible to attack the problem by methods that are rapidly making it worse. Even worse, we may have destroyed our very means of fighting.
Pressure on the pest population should always be as slight as possible.
They were particularly concerned about the possibility of being sued for libel. Carson was also undergoing radiation therapy to combat her spreading cancer, and expected to have little energy to devote to defending her work and responding to critics.
Carson attended the White House Conference on Conservation in May ; Houghton Mifflin distributed proof copies of Silent Spring to many of the delegates, and promoted the upcoming New Yorker serialization.
This brought the book to the attention of the chemical industry and its lobbyists, as well as a wide swath of the American populace. DuPont a main manufacturer of DDT and 2,4-D and Velsicol Chemical Corporation exclusive manufacturer of chlordane and heptachlor were among the first to respond.
Velsicol threatened legal action against Houghton Mifflin as well as The New Yorker and Audubon unless the planned Silent Spring features were canceled.
Chemical industry representatives and lobbyists also lodged a range of non-specific complaints, some anonymously.He will no doubt be kept on his toes when welcomes his first child with wife Rachel Weisz later this year. And Daniel Craig is seemingly making sure to keep his fitness up ahead of his new arrival.
The Rachel Carson Papers, given by the estate of Rachel Carson in , are included in The Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, PO Box , New Haven CT , Free Sex, Free Porn, Free Direct Download.
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Rachel Dolezal officially changed her name to Nkechi Amare Diallo in a Washington court last October, legal documents obtained by srmvision.com reveal. Rachel Carson had always wanted to be a writer.
She was born in the small town of Springdale, near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and had loved the natural world since childhood. Rachel Carson’s “Silent Spring” Silent Spring is widely accepted as helping start the American environmental movement in Rachel Carson was a well-known author on natural history when Silent Spring was published.