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Battered Woman Syndrome InGovernor William Weld modified parole regulations and permitted women to seek commutation if they could present evidence indicating they suffered from battered Woman syndrome.
A short while later, the Governor, citing spousal abuse as his impetus, released seven women convicted of killing their husbands, and the Great and General Court of Massachusetts enacted Mass.
In order to help these individuals define battered Woman syndrome, the origins and development of the three primary theories of the syndrome and recommended treatments are outlined below.
Lenore Walker, the architect of the classical battered Woman syndrome theory, notes the syndrome is not an illness, but a theory that draws upon the principles of learned helplessness to explain why some women are unable to leave their abusers.
Therefore, the classical battered Woman syndrome theory is best regarded as an offshoot of the theory of learned helplessness and not a mental illness that afflicts abused women. The theory of learned helplessness sought to account for the passive behavior subjects exhibited when placed in an uncontrollable environment.
In the former cage, henceforth referred to as the shock cage, a bell would sound and the experimenters would electrify the entire floor seconds later, shocking the dog regardless of location.
The latter cage, however, although similar in every other respect to the shock cage, contained a small area where the experimenters could administer no shock. Seligman observed that while the dogs in the latter cage learned to run to the nonelectrified area after a series of shocks, the dogs in the shock cage gave up trying to escape, even when placed in the latter cage and shown that escape was possible.
Thus, according to the theory of learned helplessness, a subject placed in an uncontrollable environment will become passive and accept painful stimuli, even though escape is possible and apparent. Walker, battered Woman syndrome contains two distinct elements: The cycle of violence is composed of three phases: During the tension building phase, the victim is subjected to verbal abuse and minor battering incidents, such as slaps, pinches and psychological abuse.
In this phase, the woman tries to pacify her batterer by using techniques that have worked previously. Typically, the woman showers her abuser with kindness or attempts to avoid him.
The tension building phase ends and the active battering phase begins when the verbal abuse and minor battering evolve into an acute battering incident. A release of the tensions built during phase one characterizes the active battering phase, which usually last for a period of two to twenty-four hours.
The violence during this phase is unpredictable and inevitable, and statistics indicate that the risk of the batterer murdering his victim is at its greatest.
The victim, realizing her lack of control, attempts to mitigate the violence by becoming passive. The behavior exhibited by the batter in the calm loving respite phase closely resembles the behavior he exhibited when the couple first met and fell in love.
The calm loving respite phase is the most psychologically victimizing phase because the batterer fools the victim, who is relieved that the abuse has ended, into believing that he has changed.
However, inevitably, the batterer begins to verbally abuse his victim and the cycle of abuse begins anew. As noted earlier, dogs who were placed in an environment where pain was unavoidable responded by becoming passive. Walker asserts that, in the domestic abuse ambit, sporadic brutality, perceptions of powerlessness, lack of financial resources and the superior strength of the batterer all combine to instill a feeling of helplessness in the victim.
In other words, batterers condition women into believing that they are powerless to escape by subjecting them to a continuing pattern of uncontrollable violence and abuse. As the classical theory of battered Woman syndrome is based upon the psychological principles of conditioning, experts believe that behavior modification strategies are best suited for treating women suffering from the syndrome.
A simple, yet effective, behavioral strategy consists of two stages.
Generally, professionals help the victim escape by using assertiveness training, modeling and recommending use of the court system. After the woman terminates the abusive relationship, professionals give the victim relapse prevention training to ensure that subsequent exposure to abusive behavior will not cause maladaptive behavior.
Although this strategy is effective, the model offered by Dr. Walker suggests that battered women usually do not actively seek out help. Therefore, concerned agencies and individuals must be proactive and extremely sensitive to the needs and fears of victims.But notice writing can even be viewed as restricting the verbal words of women, because they entrap female freelance writers to only point out their feelings through written words, leaving them unable to "voice" their words.
Apr 04, · “Feminism has not prepared them for this,” states Camille Paglia in her essay “Rape: A Bigger Danger than Feminists Know.” The “them” in Paglia’s statement is referring to women, and she is discussing the topic of date rape. 'Shakespeare is unable to present women other than as passive victims or deceivers of men" With reference to the characters of Ophelia and Gertrude explore to what extent you agree with this statement.
He is one who is almost incapable of any other perspective on women than a sexist one: Iago’s worry that he cannot do what Desdemona asks implies that his dispraise of women was candid and easily produced, while the praise requires labour and inspiration from a source beyond himself.
Comparative Essay A Thousand Acres by Jane Smiley and King Lear by William Shakespeare Shakespeare’s play, King Lear, depicts Lear’s journey to wisdom and humbleness before his tragic demise. The novel, A Thousand Acres, by Jane Smiley, revisits this classic tragedy through a modern-day interpretation of Shakespeare’s King .
- Introduction: The role of women in ancient Rome is not easily categorized; in some ways they were treated better than women in ancient Greece, but in other matters they were only allowed a very modest degree of rights and privileges.