Self-awareness includes being aware of how one is like others and how one is different from others. Gifted children are, in fact, different from their age-mates in many ways. They tend to be ashamed of these differences and try to hide them unless they find kindred spirits early in life.
Emory University Social Cognitive Theory InMiller and Dollard proposed a theory of social learning and imitation that rejected behaviorist notions of associationism in favor of drive reduction principles.
It was a theory of learning, however, that failed to take into account the creation of novel responses or the processes of delayed and non-reinforced imitations. InBandura and Walters wrote Social Learning and Personality Development, broadening the frontiers of social learning theory with the now familiar principles of observational learning and vicarious reinforcement.
By the s, however, Bandura was becoming aware that a key element was missing not only from the prevalent learning theories of the day but from his own social learning theory.
Inwith the publication of "Self-efficacy: With the publication of Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory, Bandura advanced a view of human functioning that accords a central role to cognitive, vicarious, self-regulatory, and self-reflective processes in human adaptation and change.
People are viewed as self-organizing, proactive, self-reflecting and self-regulating rather than as reactive organisms shaped and shepherded by environmental forces or driven by concealed Social development reflection impulses.
From this theoretical perspective, human functioning is viewed as the product of a dynamic interplay of personal, behavioral, and environmental influences. For example, how people interpret the results of their own behavior informs and alters their environments and the personal factors they possess which, in turn, inform and alter subsequent behavior.
The reciprocal nature of the determinants of human functioning in social cognitive theory makes it possible for therapeutic and counseling efforts to be directed at personal, environmental, or behavioral factors. Strategies for increasing well-being can be aimed at improving emotional, cognitive, or motivational processes, increasing behavioral competencies, or altering the social conditions under which people live and work.
In school, for example, teachers have the challenge of improving the academic learning and confidence of the students in their charge.
Behaviorist theories, for example, show scant interest in self-processes because theorists assume that human functioning is caused by external stimuli. Because inner processes are viewed as transmitting rather than causing behavior, they are dismissed as a redundant factor in the cause and effect process of behavior and unworthy of psychological inquiry.
For Bandura, a psychology without introspection cannot aspire to explain the complexities of human functioning. It is by looking into their own conscious mind that people make sense of their own psychological processes. To predict how human behavior is influenced by environmental outcomes, it is critical to understand how the individual cognitively processes and interprets those outcomes.
For Bandura"a theory that denies that thoughts can regulate actions does not lend itself readily to the explanation of complex human behavior" p. Similarly, social cognitive theory differs from theories of human functioning that overemphasize the influence of biological factors in human development and adaptation.
Instead, the theory espouses a bidirectional influence in which evolutionary pressures alter human development such that individuals are able to create increasingly complex environmental innovations that, "in turn, create new selection pressures for the evolution of specialized biological systems for functional consciousness, thought, language, and symbolic communication" p.
This bidirectional influence results in the remarkable intercultural and intracultural diversity evident in our planet. Social cognitive theory is rooted in a view of human agency in which individuals are agents proactively engaged in their own development and can make things happen by their actions.
Key to this sense of agency is the fact that, among other personal factors, individuals possess self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions, that "what people think, believe, and feel affects how they behave" Bandura,p.
Bandura provided a view of human behavior in which the beliefs that people have about themselves are critical elements in the exercise of control and personal agency.
Thus, individuals are viewed both as products and as producers of their own environments and of their social systems.Social Development Reflection Teachers need to be in tune with their students, they have to be able to relate to them at an age appropriate level.
Understanding the stages of social development, and the particulars relevant to each of those stages. Social development in early childhood is an important part of a person’s overall health, wellbeing, and happiness throughout his or her life.
The North American Association of Christians in Social Work (NACSW) is a non-profit Christian social work organization. Our mission is to equip our members to integrate Christian faith and professional social work practice.
We welcome Christian social workers of all denominations. Personalization: You think every event, conversation and action is a reflection of your worth.
Emotional Reasoning: You believe that what you feel must be the truth. If you feel guilty, then you must have done something wrong. The reciprocal nature of the determinants of human functioning in social cognitive theory makes it possible for therapeutic and counseling efforts to be directed at .
Even when a student is enjoying social interaction and involvement, and or having academic success their attitude and personality will be a direct reflection of .