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Pre-Islamic Arabia There is evidence that human habitation in the Arabian Peninsula dates back to about 63, years ago. The earliest known events in Arabian history are migrations from the peninsula into neighbouring areas. History of Islam Muhammadthe Prophet of Islamwas born in Mecca in about and first began preaching in the city inbut migrated to Medina in From there, He and His companions united the tribes of Arabia under the banner of Islam and created a single Arab Muslim religious polity in the Arabian Peninsula.
Under the Rashidun Caliphs, and, fromtheir Umayyad successorsthe Arabs rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim control outside of Arabia. In a matter of decades Muslim armies decisively defeated the Byzantine army and destroyed the Persian Empireconquering huge swathes of territory from the Iberian peninsula to India.
The political focus of the Muslim world then shifted to the newly conquered territories. The Quran requires every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it, as one of the five pillars of Islamto make a pilgrimage, or Hajjto Mecca during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah at least once in his or her lifetime.
Even then, Medina eclipsed Mecca in importance for much of the Umayyad period, as it was home to the new Muslim aristocracy. Their domain originally comprised only the holy cities of Mecca and Medina but in the 13th century it was extended to include the rest of the Hejaz.
Although the Sharifs exercised at most times independent authority in the Hejaz, they were usually subject to the suzerainty of one of the major Islamic empires of the time. They also laid claim to the interior, although this remained a rather nominal suzerainty.
In the Hejaz, the Sharifs of Mecca were largely left in control of their territory although there would often be an Ottoman governor and garrison in Mecca. On the eastern side of the country, the Ottomans lost control of the Al Hasa region to Arab tribes in the 17th century but regained it again in the 19th century.
Throughout the period, the interior remained under the rule of a large number of petty tribal rulers in much the same way as it had in previous centuries.
The Rashidi realm —, at its greatest extent See also: Emirate of Diriyah and Wahhabi movement The emergence of the Saudi dynasty began in central Arabia in Over the next years, the fortunes of the Saud family rose and fell several times as Saudi rulers contended with Egyptthe Ottoman Empireand other Arabian families for control of the peninsula.
Ali sent his sons Tusun Pasha and Ibrahim Pasha who were eventually successful in routing the Saudi forces in and destroyed the power of the Al Saud. Emirate of Najd and Emirate of Jabal Shammar The Al Saud returned to power in but their area of control was mainly restricted to the Saudi heartland of the Najd region, known as the second Saudi state.
Throughout the rest of the 19th century, the Al Saud and the Al Rashid fought for control of the interior of what was to become Saudi Arabia. After they left, the Sharifs of Mecca reasserted their authority, albeit with the presence of an Ottoman governor and garrison.
|Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman could face jeopardy as he takes steps to modernize his country||A General History InAbdul-Aziz ibn Sa'ud-the founder and first King of Saudi Arabia -took control of the Hijaz the Western Province of Saudi Arabiaending a long series of battles to consolidate and unite a vast but fragmented territory. Abdul-Aziz had his eyes on implementing a nation building process which would fit the needs and aspirations of the people while growing alongside their assessment of what would best serve the nation and its citizens.|
|Saudi Arabia profile - Timeline - BBC News||History[ change change source ] The area of modern-day Saudi Arabia formerly consisted of four distinct regions: The conquests which eventually led to the creation of the Kingdom began in when he captured Riyadhthe ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud.|
|The Economy||Its inclusion expresses the view that the country is the personal possession of the royal family.|
|History of Saudi Arabia - Wikipedia||By the end ofthe Soviet Union had collapsed and Gorbachev was out of power.|
|Ralph (Skip) Boyce||The process of building the state, fortified by oil revenues distributed through the modern institutions of bureaucracy, worked to unify this economically diverse country. So pervasive has been the influence of these relatively young institutions that few vestiges of the old economy survive unchanged.|
Arab Revolt By the early 20th century, the Ottoman Empire continued to control or have suzerainty albeit nominal over most of the peninsula.History. The area of modern-day Saudi Arabia formerly consisted of four distinct regions: Hejaz, Najd, and parts of Eastern Arabia (Al-Ahsa) and Southern Arabia ('Asir).
 The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in by Ibn Saud. Following the unification of the Hejaz and Nejd kingdoms, the new state was named al-Mamlakah al-ʻArabīyah as-Suʻūdīyah (a transliteration of المملكة العربية السعودية in Arabic) by royal decree on 23 September by its founder, Abdulaziz Al Saud ().Although this is normally translated as "the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" in English, it literally means "the Saudi Arab.
The history of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia begins properly on September 23, , when by royal decree the dual kingdom of the Hejaz and Najd with its dependencies, administered since as two separate units, was unified under the name of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The chief immediate effect was to increase the unity of the .
Tocqueville’s classic example was the regime of Louis XVI, whose attempts at reform quickly led to the French Revolution, and to his own execution in September - The areas controlled by Abd-al-Aziz are unified under the name Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Abd-al-Aziz is proclaimed King.
- King Abd-al-Aziz's eldest son, Saud, is named. I. Saudi Arabia: A General History In , Abdul-Aziz ibn Sa'ud-the founder and first King of Saudi Arabia ()-took control of the Hijaz (the Western Province of Saudi Arabia), ending a long series of battles to consolidate and unite a vast but fragmented territory.