Organizational aims[ edit ] UNWTO headquarters, Madrid The objectives of the UNWTO are to promote and develop sustainable tourism to contribute to economic development, international understanding, peace, prosperity and universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion. In pursuing these aims, UNWTO pays particular attention to the interests of developing countries in the field of tourism.
The spice trade between India and Europe was the main catalyst for the Age of Discovery. The inscription shown, is a Sanskrit invocation of Lord Shiva. The combination of protectionistimport-substitutionFabian socialismand social democratic -inspired policies governed India for sometime after the end of British rule.
The economy was then characterised by extensive regulation, protectionismpublic ownership of large monopolies, pervasive corruption and slow growth. Evidence of well-planned streets, a drainage system and water supply reveals their knowledge of urban planningwhich included the first-known urban sanitation systems and the existence of a form of municipal government.
Both the Malabar and Coromandel Coasts were the sites of important trading centres from as early as the first century BC, used for import and export as well as transit points between the Mediterranean region and southeast Asia.
Historians Tapan Raychaudhuri and Irfan Habib claim this state patronage for overseas trade came to an end by the thirteenth century AD, when it was largely taken over by the local Parsi, Jewish, Syrian Christian and Muslim communities, initially on the Malabar and subsequently on the Coromandel coast.
These traders built a Hindu templewhich suggests commerce was active and prosperous for Indians by the 17th century. Villages paid a portion of their agricultural produce as revenue to the rulers, while their craftsmen received a part of the crops at harvest time for their services.
Silver coin of the Gupta dynasty5th century AD. Mughal era — See also: Muslin trade in Bengal and Economy of the Kingdom of Mysore The Indian economy was large and prosperous under the Mughal Empireup until the 18th century.
The Mughal economy functioned on an elaborate system of coined currency, land revenue and trade. Gold, silver and copper coins were issued by the royal mints which functioned on the basis of free coinage. Key industries included textilesshipbuildingand steeland processed exports included cotton textiles, yarnsthreadsilkjute products, metalwareand foods such as sugaroils and butter.
Indeed, at the beginning of the 20th century, "the brightest jewel in the British Crown" was the poorest country in the world in terms of per capita income.
The British East India Company, following their conquest of Bengal inhad forced open the large Indian market to British goods, which could be sold in India without tariffs or dutiescompared to local Indian producers who were heavily taxedwhile in Britain protectionist policies such as bans and high tariffs were implemented to restrict Indian textiles from being sold there, whereas raw cotton was imported from India without tariffs to British factories which manufactured textiles from Indian cotton and sold them back to the Indian market.
It also established a system of railways and telegraphs, a civil service that aimed to be free from political interference, a common-law and an adversarial legal system.
The UAE's two world-class airlines, Etihad and Emirates, as well as constant upgrading of aviation infrastructure, have played a major role in the advance of the tourism . The economy of India is a developing mixed economy. It is the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and the third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). The country ranks th in per capita GDP (nominal) with $2, and nd in per capita GDP (PPP) with $7, as of After the economic liberalisation, India achieved % average GDP . For many countries tourism is seen as a main instrument for regional development, as it stimulates new economic activities. Tourism may have a positive economic impact on the balance of payments, on employment, on gross income and production, but it may also .
However, at the end of colonial rule, India inherited an economy that was one of the poorest in the developing world,  with industrial development stalled, agriculture unable to feed a rapidly growing population, a largely illiterate and unskilled labour force, and extremely inadequate infrastructure.
Subsequently, the policy of discriminating protection where certain important industries were given financial protection by the statecoupled with the Second World War, saw the development and dispersal of industries, encouraging rural—urban migration, and in particular the large port cities of BombayCalcutta and Madras grew rapidly.
Economic historian Prasannan Parthasarathi presented earnings data which showed real wages and living standards in 18th century Bengal and Mysore being higher than in Britain, which in turn had the highest living standards in Europe.
Licence Raj Indian economic policy after independence was influenced by the colonial experience, which was seen as exploitative by Indian leaders exposed to British social democracy and the planned economy of the Soviet Union.
Steel, mining, machine tools, telecommunications, insurance, and power plants, among other industries, were effectively nationalised in the mids. Figures are inflation-adjusted to International Geary-Khamis dollars. They expected favourable outcomes from their strategy, involving the rapid development of heavy industry by both public and private sectorsand based on direct and indirect state intervention, rather than the more extreme Soviet-style central command system.
Tataon the Indian regulatory system,  Sincethe use of high-yielding varieties of seedsincreased fertilisers and improved irrigation facilities collectively contributed to the Green Revolution in Indiawhich improved the condition of agriculture by increasing crop productivity, improving crop patterns and strengthening forward and backward linkages between agriculture and industry.Nov 16, · The Internet accounts for % of overall GDP in some economies.
Most of this effect is driven by e-commerce – people advertising and selling goods online. Most of this effect is driven by e-commerce – people advertising and selling goods online.
The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.
It is the leading international organization in the field of tourism, which promotes tourism as a driver of economic growth, inclusive development and environmental sustainability and offers leadership and support to the sector in advancing knowledge .
Using the WTTC formula for total economic impact of tourism (direct impact of travel and tourism plus indirect economic impact of investment) for the year , the over-reliance is staggering. The government has a major role to play in promoting economic growth and development, and in implementing poverty reduction programmes.
However the problem in Africa is that governments lack the capacity to fulfill this role. The government has a major role to play in promoting economic growth and development, Negative Economic Impacts of Tourism There are many hidden costs to tourism, Hilton Hotels are part of Hilton Worldwide with more than properties in over 80 countries.
The UAE's two world-class airlines, Etihad and Emirates, as well as constant upgrading of aviation infrastructure, have played a major role in the advance of the tourism .