Etymology[ edit ] A sixteenth-century Portuguese map of Monomotapa lying in the interior of southern Africa. The Portuguese term Monomotapa is a transliteration of the African royal title Mwenemutapa meaning prince of the realm.
Tweet on Twitter The Mutapa State consolidated power and maintained its dominance from the 15th to the 20th century in what is now present day Zimbabwe. The ruling class of the Mutapa people had similar culture and customs as those of the Great Zimbabwe.
The Mutapa people produced and traded a variety of goods such as elephant tusks and gold and encouraged traders including the Swahili and Portuguese to come to their state. In addition, the Captain of the Gates would make sure the Portuguese would obey the laws and customs of the Mutapa, pay tribute and pay taxes on all goods brought into the state.
When the Portuguese traders failed to adhere to the rules the Mutapa would close the mines, confiscate their property and stop all trade with them until they conformed. The Portuguese and the Mutapa traded beads, cloth, cattle, ivory, gold and so forth.
In addition, the Portuguese had to pay tribute and taxes to the King. After Portuguese missionary, Goncalo Silveira was killed inthe Portuguese used this as an excuse to launch attacks against the state.
Inan army of a thousand led by Francisco Barreto sailed from Portugal to attack the Mutapa. However, they never arrived because of hunger and disease.
After Barreto died, Vasco Homem took over the army and invaded the gold producing state of Manyika which was located between Mutapa and Sofala.
After Homem and his army took over Manyika they tried to control the mines and force the locals to work as slaves in the mines. However, Homem and his army failed because they did not understand the culture.
The Manyika were primarily farmers would farm for most of the year and only mine during the non productive farming season because the gold was not enough to sustain full time work. Homem left Manyika in and the Portuguese did not return for another years.The Kingdom of Mutapa or any kingdom of Zimbabwe holds a captivating history.
This Kingdom was founded in , succeeding the kingdom of the Great Zimbabwe.
This kingdom was founded by a royal member from its successor. It stretched from Zimbabwe to the Mozambique srmvision.com kingdom was of Karanga speaking majority. Mutapa Empire ( to ) was an empire, in present day Zimbabwe, extending to the Mozambique coast.
It was the successor kingdom of Great Zimbabwe. The empire was comprised of a Karanga majority speaking population. For the Mutapa state, this is where agricultural production and livestock herding played an important role.
According to Portuguese documents, when the Mutapa needed gold for trade he would give his subjects cattle and they in return would mine and supply the gold (Randles, , 86). Pwiti argues that if one of the reasons for the collapse of Great Zimbabwe was the shift in the focus of trade to the north, then it is logical to credit the early rulers of the Mutapa state with the introduction of large scale external trade in northern Zimbabwe.
Etymology. The name Mutapa means "the conquered lands." The mwene (bantu term for "lord," specifically a conquering king) was the title giving rise to the state being referred to as Mwene Mutapa.
This phrase has been preserved in documents as Munhu mu tapa, Manhumutapa, and the Portuguese, Monomotapa.. History. The Mutapa Empire was bordered by the Zambesi and Limpopo rivers. The Kingdom of Mutapa Empire (Shona: Wene we Mutapa; Portuguese: Monomotapa) was a medieval kingdom (c.
) which stretched between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers of Southern Africa in the modern states of Zimbabwe and Mozambique.