Michigan Amish Michigan is home to the sixth-largest Amish population Michigan has a long history of Amish settlement, with the first Amish settling in the Great Lakes State in
The Eleman languages were first proposed by S. Duna and Kalam were added in Although they did not work out regular sound correspondences, and so could not distinguish between cognates due to genealogical relationship, cognates due to borrowing, and chance resemblances, their research was taken seriously.
They also noted possible cognates in other families Wurm would later add to TNG: However, part of the evidence for this was typologicaland Wurm stated that he did not expect it to stand up well to scrutiny. Although he based the phylum on characteristic personal pronounsseveral of the branches had no pronouns in common with the rest of the family, or even had pronouns related to non-TNG families, but were included because they were grammatically similar to TNG.
Other families that had typical TNG pronouns were excluded because they did not resemble other TNG families in their grammatical structure.
Because grammatical typology is readily borrowed—many of the Austronesian languages in New Guinea have grammatical structures similar to their Papuan neighbors, for example, and conversely many Papuan languages resemble typical Austronesian languages typologically—other linguists were skeptical.
Foley rejected Wurm's and even some of Voorhoeve's results, and broke much of TNG into its constituent parts: The strongest lexical evidence for any language family is shared morphological paradigms, especially highly irregular or suppletive paradigms with bound morphology, because these are extremely resistant to borrowing.
For example, if the only recorded German words were gut "good" and besser "better", that alone would be enough to demonstrate that in all probability German was related to English. However, because of the great morphological complexity of many Papuan languages, and the poor state of documentation of nearly all, in New Guinea this approach is essentially restricted to comparing pronouns.
Families required two apparent cognates to be included. However, if any language in a family was a match, the family was considered a match, greatly increasing the likelihood of coincidental resemblances, and because the plural forms are related to the singular forms, a match of 1sg and 1pl, although satisfying Ross's requirement of two matches, is not actually two independent matches, again increasing the likelihood of spurious matches.
That is, it is argued that Ross's pronouns do not support the validity of Trans—New Guinea, and do not reveal which families might belong to it.
Several additional families are only tentatively linked to TNG. Note also that because the boundaries of Ross's proposal are based primarily on a single parameter, the pronouns, all internal structure remains tentative. The languages[ edit ] TNG is strongly associated with the New Guinea Highlands redand may have spread with the spread of highland agriculture starting c.
The most populous language outside of mainland New Guinea is Makasai on Timorwithspeakers throughout the eastern part of the country. The greatest linguistic diversity in Ross's Trans—New Guinea proposal, and therefore perhaps the location of the proto-Trans—New Guinea homeland, is in the interior highlands of Papua New Guinea, in the central-to-eastern New Guinea cordillera where Wurm first posited his East New Guinea Highlands family.
Ross speculates that the TNG family may have spread with the high population densities that resulted from the domestication of tarosettling quickly in the highland valleys along the length of the cordillera but spreading much more slowly into the malarial lowlands, and not at all into areas such as the Sepik River valley where the people already had yam agriculture, which thus supported high population densities.
Ross suggests that TNG may have arrived at its western limit, the islands near Timorperhaps four to 4.A public health emergency has been declared in California amid deadly wildfires.
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